Articles 5 and 22 of the AU Constitutive Act, on the establishment of Economic, Social and Cultural Council (ECOSOCC); and Article 20 of the Protocol Relating to the Establishment of the Peace and Security Council of the African Union and the Conclusions of the Retreat of the PSC, held in Livingstone, Zambia, on 4 and 5 December 2008 (Livingstone Formula) called for interaction between the PSC and CSOs in the promotion of peace, security, and stability in Africa.

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